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White Papers

Download white papers on a variety of topics, from when to retrofit or replace your system, to implementing alternative fuel applications. Select article reprints are also included in this section.

Alternative Fuel Applications for Gain

There are a number of innovative solutions that companies have successfully implemented to improve their energy and environmental performance. Among these solutions is the combustion of alternative fuels, such as biogas refinery fuels, hydrogen and flammable liquids, to produce usable power.

Boiler Retrofits Can Reap Benefits

One-third of a facility’s energy bill stems from the boiler room, and system inefficiency leads to high energy costs. Many people think purchasing a new high-efficiency boiler or replacing an older boiler is the only way to achieve significant energy savings, but that’s just not true.

Burner Retrofit Options to Increase Efficiency and Reduce Emissions

If your boiler/burner (package) is like more than 200,000 commercial and industrial boiler packages in operation today, then it’s more than 20 years old. Which means it’s probably only 60 to 70 percent efficient and large amounts of fuel and associated cash are simply being wasted every minute the equipment is being operated.

Cleaver-Brooks Large Flextube Boiler is Engineered for High Efficiency and Low Emissions

When Cleaver-Brooks engineers commenced to design a large flexible watertube boiler, capable of 12.5 to 25 MMBTU, they wanted to engineer a product that would raise the bar for both efficiency and emissions in the category.  Their goals were for the Large FLX boiler to obtain 81% efficiency on 125 psig steam and 85% efficiency on hydronic heating applications. 

Designing Large Packaged Boilers

Designing large package boilers rated at over 400,000 lb/h steam production is a challenge because of shipping limitations within the U.S. and Canada. Field-erected boilers, on the other hand, are very expensive and take more time for commissioning. Minimizing field assembly time is crucial to cutting costs and shortening the construction schedule on such large projects.

Effects of Ultra-High Turndown in Hydronic Boilers

Today, hydronic boilers are producing greater efficiencies than previously thought possible, all due to the advancements of condensing technology. It is the science behind condensing that many people do not take the the time to understand, which can lead to misunderstandings and the perpetuation of myths. One of the largest areas of confusion concerns high turndown.

Engineering the First Steam Ready Industrial Watertube Boiler

Design engineers at Cleaver-Brooks have been making modifications to its integrated watertube boiler/burner system in order to improve productivity, reduce emissions and increase energy efficiency.  Building upon its proven, high-quality design, engineers have applied advanced computational fluid dynamics and mathematical modeling to optimize and standardize the boiler system.  As a result, the industry-leading, IWT system is now available on a fast-track timeline.

EX Firetube Boiler Changed by Advances in Design Technology

Recent advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other analytical design techniques have given these engineers the ability to perform the sophisticated calculations necessary to design the next generation firetube boiler.  See how Cleaver-Brooks has changed the game in Firetube Technology.

Forced Circulation Steam Generators for SAGD Applications

Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage, better known as SAGD, is considered to be the most viable and environmentally safe recovery technology for extracting heavy oil and bitumen. The process, which has been utilized for more than a decade, uses an advanced form of steam stimulation to extract oil from a pair of horizontal wells drilled into a reservoir.  

Gas Technology: Condensing Hydronic Boilers
Condensing hydronic boilers can operate at efficiencies in the mid-90s and above. The key to these fantastic efficiencies is to have incoming feedwater at temperatures below 140° F, and to be able to either modulate the boiler or have sufficient redundancy that operating units can be held near their efficiency “sweet spot.”
How to Balance Steam Loads Efficiently

• An understanding of the load vs. efficiency relationship is a guide for better decisions about boiler operation.
• The oxygen content in turbine exhaust gases is sufficient to support the combustion needed for a downstream waste heat boiler.
• The heat recovery steam generator uses about 8% to 10% less fuel input to produce the same amount of steam as a package boiler.

Maximizing Boiler Efficiency with Hybrid Boilers

A hybrid boiler plant is defined as a hydronic heating plant combining condensing and non-condensing boilers. This system is designed to take advantage of the best properties of both types. Through the proper system design, control and boiler selection, we may be able to save the same amount of energy associated with a properly designed full condensing plant at a cost of one third to one half of an all condensing plant.

Properly Treat Boiler Water for Efficient Long-Term Operation

To ensure a boiler runs properly over the course of its lifetime, treating the water that circulates within the system is mandatory. If the water is not treated properly, the boiler will begin to have problems within the first year, and its useful life will be significantly shortened. Boiler symptoms resulting from untreated water include overheating, failure to produce hot water or steam, a drop in the boiler flow rate and an overall loss of efficiency.

Retrofit or Replace Boilers - Returning Wealth to the Business
With the current economic situation causing stress on every front from the crisis on Wall Street to the falling housing market to the failing auto industry, we in the energy conversion industry (including anybody who operates a boiler for heating or process) are also facing some tough economic times, and energy consumption is at the heart of much of it.
Selecting a Boiler Stack

Selecting a Boiler Stack Key Considerations for Selection and Installation By: Marc Andr Sguin Successful boiler operation is highly dependent on exhaust-system design and installation, as boiler inefficiency, burner shutdown, and flame-ignition failure upon startup can result from a poorly designed stack system.

The Lowdown on Low-Water Volume, Low-Mass Boilers
All boilers designed and manufactured for steam production have several factors in common. Regardless of whether the boiler is a firetube or watertube design, it is important to evaluate key factors that will influence the operational efficiency of the equipment and impact its return on investment.
Total System Efficiency - An Introduction to Condensing Boilers

Boilers are closed pressure vessels that are used to heat fluids --either water or steam. They range in size, fluid to be heated, temperature of fluid, and design configurations. This paper is the first in a series to explain total system efficiency with a focus on condensing hot water boilers used for space heating, process applications, and/or domestic hot water heating.

Total System Efficiency - Condensing Boiler System Myth Busting

TOTAL SYSTEM EFFICIENCY: CONDENSING BOILER SYSTEM MYTH BUSTING David Grassl PE Mechanical Engineer PrincipalThere are many reasons why engineers have been led to believe that condensing boilers do not fit a design application. Most of these reasons are inaccurate as condensing boilers can be used in most applications

Total System Efficiency - Condensing Boilers in Retrofit Applications

TOTAL SYSTEM EFFICIENCY: CONDENSING BOILERS IN RETROFIT APPLICATIONS David Grassl PE Mechanical Engineer PrincipalEach retrofit has its own set of challenges, but having a solid understanding of the various pumping and piping configurations available will lead to the correct design for each project. Following are the

Total System Efficiency - Control Strategies and System Distribution

TOTAL SYSTEM EFFICIENCY: CONTROL STRATEGIES & SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION David Grassl PE Mechanical Engineer PrincipalThis is the second paper in the total system efficiency series that will detail various control strategies available in boiler system designs and explain some of the various system distribution configuration

Total System Efficiency - System Applications and Designs

TOTAL SYSTEM EFFICIENCY: SYSTEM APPLICATIONS & DESIGNS David Grassl PE Mechanical Engineer PrincipalSimilar to traditional boiler systems, condensing boiler systems have many designs they can operate within as they are built to handle a range of hot water temperatures. The best application for condensing boilers, tho

Total System Efficiency - The New Design Paradigm

TOTAL SYSTEM EFFICIENCY: THE NEW DESIGN PARADIGM David Grassl PE Mechanical Engineer PrincipalThere are advantages and disadvantages to the new design paradigm of engineering a system with condensing boilers. Condensing boilers are very different from traditional boilers in both their operation and design; hence, the

Trends in Packaged Boiler Design
Designing large package boilers is more challenging than ever. Demand from the marketplace is increasing for special features including low emissions, quick startup requirements, hot standby operation, heavy cycling ability, high turndown and increased efficiency, to name a few.
Uncovering the Myth of the Industry-Standard Boiler Efficiency Measurement

Today’s published boiler efficiency ratings are calculated by manufacturers using a 15% excess air level, regardless of a burner’s actual ability to operate at that condition throughout the firing range during normal online operation. This “theoretical” boiler efficiency rating is inflated and typically unachievable outside of controlled lab conditions.